Fall of the Newah Kingdoms – Some Excerpts from a German Account of Hidden History of Nepal

Hamburg, Germany – An account by Austrian journalist, Dr. Hans Georg Behr in his book titled “Nepal Geschenk der Götter (Nepal Gifts of the Gods)” written in German reveals an unknown part of our history how the Newah Kingdoms fallen giving rise to Gurkhas. The account by Dr. Behr, who was born in Vienna, Austria but lives in Hamburg, Germany, translated into English by Chakana Nepami and a Nepal Bhasa version by Binod Saymi “Ala” have brought these untold episodes of the history into light recently. Either many of our historians were not aware of the episodes or reluctant to convey to us the events what led to the fall of Newah kingdoms in the Nepal Mandala in the 18th century. The account therin contradicts the conventional account of unification story of Nepal. Read more from the Nepal Bhasa version below.

The English version is published on our occassional printed issue of The Newah. Pdf copies available on request to: thenewah@gmail.com

Nepal Geschenk der Gotter (Nepal's gifts of the Gods) written by Dr. H. G. Behr and published by Icon Publications, Viena and Delsdorf in 1976.

नेवाः राज्यया विध्वंस गथेजुल – नेपाःया हुयातःगु ईतिहासया छुँ उद्धरणत
– विनोद सायमि “आल” (अनुवादक)

ने.सं. ११२९ सिल्ला २५

येँ, नेपाल मण्डल – थूगु च्वसू, डा. हायन्स गेअर्ग बेअःभाजुँ जःमन् भासँ च्वया दीगु “नेपाःया हुयातःगु ईतिहास” सफूया पौल्याः ५६ निसेँ ६२ यातः चकना नेपाःमि मयजुँ यानादीगु अंग्रेज अनुवादँ नेपाल भासय् हिला न्ह्यब्वयाःगु जुल।

१) अंग्रेज सरकारँ गोरखालीतयेतः छाय् ल्वाभः लःल्हात धैगु वास्तबिक सत्य खँ थउँ तकनँ नेपाःया ईतिहासय् गोप्य जुइक हुया तःगु दु।
२) थ्व गोप्य याना तःगु संझौता थउँतकं लन्डनया ईष्ट ईण्डिया कंपनीया पुलांगु मुना ज्याकुथी दनी।
३) संझौताकथं पृथ्वीनारायणं ८०० पू हाते भरुवा बन्दुक व २१ म्ह सल्लाहकारपिं प्राप्त यात।
४) गुबले तक नेवाःतयेसँ न्हुँम्ह जुजु यात थः मनाः उबलय् तक गोर्खालीतयेसँ नेवाःतयेगु ककुइ तरवार दिकल।
५) थुकथं क्याप्टेन सीयनया सल्लाह साहुतिं (वँ धाःथेँ हे) पृथ्वी नारायण शाहं याःना यंकूगु खः।
६) नेवाःतयेतः सलंसः दँतक राज्य शक्तिइ थहाँवयेका बी मते।
७) पृथ्वीनारायणं नेपाः त्याकेवं तुरुन्त हे नेवाःतयेसँ आखः ब्वने, च्वये मदु याना बिल, थःछेँ ल्ह्वने मदु आदि आदि याये मदुगु याना बिल।

(पौ ल्याः ५६)
गोरखाया जुजु नरभुपाल शाह सन् १७१६ निसें चाया राजगद्दि च्वनाच्वंगु। वइतः थ्व राजगद्दि तसकं मछिंसे च्वनाच्वन। उकेँ वँ न्ह्यागुमू पुलाः जूसाँनँ स्वनिगःया वहःया राजगद्दि लिसे हिलेगु ईच्छा यात। वँ थःगु भूभाग तःब्याका यंकेत तःक्वः इहिपा याना स्वापू ब्याका यंकूसां थःगु आज्जु ताः लाके मफु। लिपा वं थःगु रणनीति हे हिल। सन् १७३२ य् वँ छगू पौ च्वसें, थः झिदँ दूम्ह काय् पृथ्वीनारायणयात ख्वपया जुजुया थाय् छ्वल। नरभुपाल शाहनँ थः काय् यात बाँलागु शिक्षा बिया ब्वलंकेत ख्वपया जुजुयात इनाप यात, गुगु नेपालय् जक जुइ फइ। अयनँ गोरखाया जुजु नरभूपाल शाहया ईच्छा धाःसा थः काय यातः लाय्कूया दक्वं दुगः खँ सीकेत जासुसी, सुराकि (Spy)याके बिकेगु खः। ख्वपया मल्लं पृथ्वीनारायणयात लाय्कूया न्ह्यागुज्याखँनं छम्ह पाहाँ कथं नाला काल। ख्वप जुजुं थः मस्तय्तः पृथ्वीनारायण लिसेतुं म्हितकी। पृथ्वीनारायण तसकं लुमंके फुम्ह नुगः दुम्ह खः, वया नेपाःया दक्वं घटनात लुमं। न्यादँ लिपा पृथ्वीनारायण थःगु देय् गोरखाय् लिहाँ वन। वँ ल्वापुया हुनि, सैनिक शक्ति व सैनिक तयातःगु थाय्बाय् सकतां सीका थूइका काये धुंकल। पृथ्वीनारायणँ बाँलाक्क थूकि, नक्वाःयातला अःपुकहे त्याकेफई, अले उगु हे दँय् नक्वालय् आक्रमण यात। थन नकचाम्ह राजकुमारं याउँक थुइकूगु द्वन वा वया अबुँ मल्लतयेतः कमजोर तायेकूगु द्वन। गोरखाँ बिचा मयाथें छथ्थुं मल्लत मंकाः जाना गोरखायात बामलाक्क बुकल। थनंलिं प्रत्येक बर्षाया इलय् गोरखां स्वनिगःया बाँला, तःजि (richness) थःगु ल्हातय् लाकेगु कुत यानातुँ च्वन। अथेसाँ ताः मलाः। सदाँ यँलाया (भाद्र महिना) लिपागु न्हि पाखे गोरखाँ स्वनिगः आक्रमण याःवइ अएनँ हताः गुबलें त्याके मफु। पृथ्वीनारायणं सन् १७६४ तक आक्रमण यानातु च्वन। वयाँलिं अचानक बिचा हे मयाःथें पृथ्वीनारायणं स्वनिगलय् छगू शान्तिया हसना छ्वल। मल्लतयसं थ्व पौयात छगू लसतां जाःगु हसना कथं नालाकाल। धात्थेंला देसय् गबलें मद्यूगु हतालं मल्लतय्त सदां घाघः जुयाच्वंगुया लिसें थःगु बनेज्याय् नं माक्वं बांमलाक्क लिच्वः लाकायंकूगु खः। अयनँ पृथ्वीनारायणया शान्तिया हसना धैगु वास्तवय् लिपा यायेगु हताया तयारी खः। पृथ्वीनारायणं थ्व ध्वं लाये ज्या तसकं धुर्तता कथं पुवंका मल्लतय्त झंगः ल्हात। गबले गोरखां उत्तर वनेगु लँपुइ पंगः थना बिल। उबलय् तिनि मल्लतयसं थुइका काल कि थ्व शान्तिया हसना मखु धैगु। मल्लतय्त हथाय् चायेमाःगु मेगु खँ धैगु गोरखातय्के गन वः गनं वः जुइक तसकं उच्च स्तरया ल्वाभः व आपालं आपा धेबा दत तर मल्लतय्सं मस्यू थ्व आशिर्वाद गोरखायात गनं चू लानाच्वन।

अंग्रेज सरकारं गोरखालीतयेतः छाय् ल्वाभः लःल्हात धैगु वास्तबिक सत्य खँ थौं तकंनं नेपाःया ईतिहासय् गोप्य जुइक हुया तःगु दु। थ्व गोप्य याना तःगु संझौता (treaty) थौं तकँ लण्डन ईष्ट ईण्डिया कंपनीया अभिलेखालय तयातःगु दनी। थ्व संझौताय् क्याप्टेन सीयेन (Captain Ceane) व गोरखाया पाखे ल्हाचिं तयातःगु दु। थ्व संझौता कथं अंग्रेज सरकारं गोरखायात ल्वाभः व सल्लाह साहुति बिइगु जुइसा गोरखां ईण्डिया व चीन नापया बनेज्या जुइगु लँपु त्वाः ल्हाना बिइमाः। ईण्डियाया मुगलतय् नेपाःया मल्लत नाप बनेज्या जुइगु व थ्व बनेज्यां याना मुगलतयेसँ ३० ब्वः धनसंपत्ती दुत कयाच्वंगु खः। अंग्रेज सरकारया इच्छा धैगु, थ्व धनसंपत्ती थःगु ल्हातय् लाकेगु।

संझौता कथं पृथ्वीनारायणं ८०० पू तुपः (हाते भरुवा बन्दुक् muskets) व २१ म्ह सल्लाहकारपिं प्राप्त यात। थ्व हे ल्वाभः व सल्लाह पाखें गोरखाँ किपुली सन् १७६६ स आक्रमण यात। किपूमिं गोर्खालीतयेत पने मफुत। स्वब्वः किपूमिते निब्बः किपूमितेतः स्यानाबिल। निर्दयी गोरखालीतय्सं म्वाःपिं किपूमिपिनिगु न्हाय् धेना बिल। थौं तक नं थ्व थाय् यातः “न्हाय् मदु थाय्” धायेगु याः। आः मल्लतयेसँ थुइकल कि, ई तसकं स्यना गंभिर जुइ धुंकूगु दु। येँया जुजु जयप्रकाश मल्ल तसकं बुद्धि विबेक दुम्ह जुजु खः, वं भारतया ईष्ट ईण्डिया कंपनीयात तसकं नुगःथीगु पौ च्वसें ग्वाहालि फ्वन। ईष्ट ईण्डिया कंपनीं तसकं बल्लापिं १५ म्ह मनूत, क्याप्टेन किन्लोच (Captain Kinloch) (गुम्हकि अयेला त्वने तसकं यःम्ह) या नेतृत्वय् छ्वयाहल। गुबलय् अंग्रेजत पहाड पाखे थ्यन उमिसं थःत गोर्खाली पाखें दायेकेगु पहः यात। अथे धैगु थःत दागुथें पहः यायेगु व थः स्याथें हालेगु कासा थें। झीगु भासं धायेसा “छं दाः थें या, जि ख्वये थें याये” । अंग्रेजतयेसँ मल्लतयेतः क्यन कि गोरखालीत तसकं बल्ला व अंग्रेजतयेतहेनं लिफ्यायेफु, धकाः।

जयप्रकाश मल्लँ थःगु धर्म संस्कृतिया तिबः माः वन। भविष्यवाणी यायेफुम्हं (राजगुरु?) (The prophet) जुजुयात सल्लाह बिल कि नेपाःया भविष्य श्री कुमारि माजुया ल्हातय् दु। थ्व हुनिं जुजुं सन् १७६८ ईन्द्रजात्रा नख तःजिक न्यायेका बीकल। नखः बलय नेवाःतयेसँ थ्वँ त्वन। सन् १७६८ सेप्टेम्बर १३ नखःया न्हि खुन्हुनं यक्व थ्वँ त्वन। गोरखालीतयेसँ आक्रमण याःगु उमिसं उबलय् तिनी चाल गुबलय् कुमारिया द्यःखः साला जात्रा न्ह्याये धुंकल। छत्थुं होसहास हे मदयेक जात्रा न्यायेका च्वंगु् हुलमुलय् घार्रघुर्र आक्रमण यात। अचानक आक्रमण जुइवं जयप्रकाश मल्लया छु गथे बिचाः हे याये मलासेलिं रथं थः निम्ह लानिपिं लिसें कुहां वया यलय् बिस्युं वन। पृथ्वी नारायण शाह प्वंगु रथय् थहां वना तःसःगु सः थ्वयेकुसें हाल। “आः छिमि जुजु जि खः। छिमि गुलि थ्वँ त्वनेमास्ते वः त्वं।” आपालं आपा नेवाःतयेसँ थ्वँ त्वन छाय् धाःसा उमित गोर्खालीतेसँ ख्याच्वः व धम्कि बिया आतंकित यात। गुबलेतक नेवाःतयेसँ न्हुम्ह जुजुयात थः मनाः उबलय् तक गोर्खालीतेसँ नेवाःतेगु ककुइ तलवार दिकल। थुजोगु कं हाःगु आतंकित ग्याचिकुँ याना न्हुम्ह जुजुयात नालाकाये माल। उमित मेगु लिना वनेगु गुगुं लँपु मदु।

व हे दया चिकुलाय् गुगुं पंगः मदयेक गोरखालीतयसं यल देय् थःगु याना काल। आः मल्लत ख्वप देयया चीधंगु लायेकुली च्वनाच्वन। ख्वपया लायेकू सुनांनं आक्रमण याये मफयेक तसकं बल्लाक दयेका तःगु। उकें पृथ्वीनारायणयात थ्व न न्ह्ययेथें जुयाच्वन। पृथ्वीनारायण शाहँ अंग्रेजतयेगु सल्लाह साहुतिकथं ज्या यात। ख्वपयात पिहां वये मजिक छचालिं पना नाकाबन्दि यायेगु अंग्रेजया कुतनीति वैत बाँला ताल। ख्वप दुने स्वदँ लिपा नयेत मुंका तयातःगु नयेगु नसाः सिधल। छन्हु बहनी मल्लते मथ्यापिँ सन्तानतेसँ (illegitimate children of Malla) ख्वप देसे दुहां वयेगु लुखा चायेका बिल। मल्ल जुजुपिं स्वम्हेसोतँ उपिं हे देनिगु कोथायेतुँ ज्वन। येँया जुजु जयप्रकाश मल्लँ आत्महत्या यात। पृथ्वीनारायणं तसकं दयालु उदार स्वभाव क्यनेत जयप्रकाश मल्लया सीम्ह पशुपती दिपय् हल। रणजित मल्ल, सुनां पृथ्वीनारायण शाहयात लहिगु, ब्वंकेगु, ब्वलंकेगु यात वैत मस्या, मिखा तछ्याना काँ याना हिन्दुस्ताने काशीबास छ्वया बिल। शाहतयसं यलया जुजु, तेजनरसिंहयात न्ह्यागु खँ न्यँसाँ, गुगुनँ खँ कने इच्छा मयासे अडिग जुया च्वन । तेज नरसिंह मल्लयात गाः म्हुया छचालिं प्यखें पःखाः दना च्वं नं तपुया चिकिचा प्वाःगु प्वाः छप्वाः जक ल्यंका दुने कुना बिल। छदेमा जा निन्हु तक प्वाः लिक्क तया बिल। तेज नरसिंह मल्लं जा थिया मतयेवं निन्हु लिपा, व प्वाः नं तिना बिल।

थुकथं क्याप्टेन सीयनया सल्लाह साहुति कथं हे पृथ्वी नारायण शाहं याःना यंकूगु खः। क्याप्टेन सीयनं पृथ्वीनारयणयात धाल “नेपाःया मनूत तसकं ज्या याये बल्लापिं मेहेनती, बुद्धि दुपिं उकें थुपिं ग्यानपु। झीसं थुमित न्ह्यागु कथं नं दुःख पिडा ख्याच्वः बिया आत्मबल कमजोर याना थःगु अधीनय् तया तयेमाः। सलँसः दँतक थुमित राज्य शक्तिइ थहाँ वये मफेका बीमाः। झीसं उमित हाकनं शक्तिइ वया राज्यभोग यायेगु ईच्छा उमिगु नुगलं हे हुया छ्वयेमा।” थ्व आज्जु अमानविय कडा कानुन व हिंसक ब्यवहार याना जक ताः लाके फइ। पृथ्वीनारायणं नेपाः त्याकेवं तुरुन्त हे नेवाःतय्सं आखः ब्वने, च्वये मदु याना बिल। धः, छेँ ल्ह्वने मदु आदि आदि याये मदुगु याना बिल। गुगुं कथं सुनानं यायेमते धया तःगु याःसा मृत्यु दण्डया सजाय फयेमाली। न्हापांगु पुस्तां थ्व छु खः थुइका काये मफुत। सन् १७७० य् २५०० (निद्वः व न्यासः म्ह) नेवाःतेत स्यानाबिल। निगूगु पुस्तायात तसकं मानसिकताँ बूपिं छुं याये मफुपिं याना बिल। स्वंगुगु पुस्तां निसें (थःगु इतिहासहे) मस्यूपिँ जुइका बिल।…..

पृथ्वीनारायणं स्वनिगयात थःगु ल्हातय् लाये धुंका आपलं आपा संपत्ति देसय् प्वंकुसां पुलांगु शहरयागु ख्वापाःत ह्यूगु धैगुहे भुखाय् ब्वया जक खः। स्वभाबिककथं अंग्रेजतेसँ, थ्व निर्दयी ज्यां आपालं आपा धेबाः मुंकेत ताः लात। सन् १७७६ य् मुगल सरकार धेबाः मदया कंगाल जुयेवं थःके दूगु शक्ति न्हनावन। मुगल राज्य शक्ति कोलोनीइ हिला वनेमाल।

पृथ्वीनारायण शाहं नेपाःयात कायेवं, पुलांगु बनेज्या यायेगु लँपु पना बीवं मुक्कं दथु एसियायात हे तच्वकं बामलाःगु लिच्वः लाकल। तिब्वतया आर्थिक अवस्था तसकं बामलाक प्रभावित जुसें कुहां वन। गुम्बा, धर्माबलम्बीत थःगु आर्थिक अवस्थाय् थःके जक निर्भर जुइ माल। थुकथं शान्त नेपालय् सामन्ती शासनया जन्म जुल । चीन देसयात तकं नं थुकिं बामलाःगु लिच्वः लाकल।

अंग्रेजत गोरखाली नापनं तसकं लयेमता। गोरखालीत न्हापा हे मनूया हिं म्व ल्हुइ धुंकुपिं व ल्वाना जुये यःपिं खः। थुकथं गोरखां दक्व पहाडी राज्यत त्याका यंका बिदेशी दुहां वये मदुगु देस दयेकल। बिदेशी सुं दुहां वये मदुगु राज्य दयेकुसां अंग्रेजतयेत धाःसा थुकी पंगः मदु। सन् १७८९ स गोरखालीत तसकं वयेँ चाया चीन व अंग्रेजत नाप युद्ध घोषणा यात।

(पौ ल्याः ६२)
अंग्रेज जेनरल अक्टेर्नोलीं (General Ochternoly) धाल “झीसं गोरखायात सदां इलं-मलाक्क तक्यंका तयेमा। अथे यायेवं उमिगु मतिइ (त्याकेगु, ल्वायेगु सिबें मेगु) मेगु बिचा वयेफु। लर्ड हस्तीरुं (Lord Hasting) सन् १८१७ य् थःगु न्हिछ्याना सफुतिइ च्वल, “नेपालय् शान्ति हयेत गोरखालीतेतः इलं-मलापिं याना तयेमा व उमित उमिगु देसं तापाक पित हयेमा। थुकथं गोरखाली सैनिकया जन्म जुल। नेपाल सरकारं गोरखालीतेसँ छ्वया हःगु स्वब्वलय् छब्वः धेवाः काइ। थ्व रकम नेपाल सरकारया छगू मू आर्थिक श्रोत खः।

गबलय् गोरखालीतेसँ नेपाल त्वःतल उबलय् निसें देय् दुने व देसया सिमानाय् शान्तिं खल। तर दरवार दुने धाःसा शान्तिं मखः। शाहत थः थवं ल्वानाच्वन। शाहतयसं नेपाः देय् व जनताया च्युता मका। उपिं थःगु लागिं जक सदां तक्यना जुयाच्वन। लिपा कोटपर्व जुल, कोटपर्व याना जरु बहादुर राणां शाह जुजु पाखें शक्ति थःगु ल्हातय् लाकल।
(च्वसँ न्ह्ब्वयागु उद्धरणया भास शुद्धिकरणया लागी छुँ भचा सम्पादन जूगु दु। – The Newah )

छिगु कमेन्ट् थन क्वसँ च्वयादिसँ।

8 thoughts on “Fall of the Newah Kingdoms – Some Excerpts from a German Account of Hidden History of Nepal”

  1. I feel sad to read the article. Nepal’s unification was disaster for us as Newars but also It pushed back the development of the country, not only culturally but also scientifiacally. I read the other articles about metal treatment, architecture, social organisation or Guthi system which are similar to present social welfare system in Europe. So feel like we are under domestic colonisation. It is worse because we can not fight agaist the colonials as people fought agaist the Europeans but we must fight for our indigenous peopl’s right.

  2. Whenever, you print an article in Nepal Bhasa (Of course) it would be nice if you can also print in English language as well. This will help us a lot for those who aren’t that fluent in reading Nepal Bhasa.
    Thank you.

    1. Damodar Pradhan

      Hidden History of Nepal Posted by Ram Kumar Shrestha on July 6, 2011
      This is an English translation of excerpt from the book called Nepal Geschenk der Götter (Nepal gifts of the Gods) written in German language
      Since 1716, Gorakh Nath Narbhupal Shah had been sitting on his throne made of mud. He found his throne very uncomfortable, and wanted to change it with the silver throne of the Kathmandu Valley at any cost. With this aim in mind, he married many times to widen his territory and built alliances. But he was not successful .Finally, he changed his tactics.In 1732, he sent his 10 years old son Prithvi Narayan to stay with the king of Bhaktapur.
      In a covering letter, Narbhupal Shah requested the king of Bhaktapur to raise his son and provide him a good education which was only possible in Nepal. But his real intention was to place his son in the palace so that he could spy on it and gather vital information.
      The Malla king of Bhaktapur took in his young guest Prithvi Narayan Shah with friendship and showed him the prince of Gorkha.Prithvi Narayan Shah had an excellent memory , and remembered everything that he saw. After five years, he returned to his hometown Gorkha. He had gathered much information about the reasons behind the quarrels among the valley kings, the exact quantity of military equipments and the strategic locations in Nepal.
      Prithvi Narayan Shah was sure that he could conquer the pass of Nuwakot, so in the same year he sent his Gorkha soldiers to attack Nuwakot. The young prince had miscalculated or his father had underestimated the Mallas. The Malla kings banded together and their armies beat the Gorkhas very badly.
      Since then, the Gorkha launched an attack on the valley every year right after the monsoon in order to possess its wealth. But they were failed. The Gorkhas came punctually at the end of September, but they never made any headway. This went on till 1764. Prithvi then sent a peace messages to the valley. The Mallas received his messages with joy. The endless war was a strain on their resources, and it was also disrupting their business.
      But Prithvi’s message was a clever deception; he really didn’t seek peace. The Mallas came to know that it was only a ploy when the Gorkhas blocked the northern trade route. Another thing that worried the Malla was that the Gorkhas had come into possessions of excellent arms and lots of money with which to prosecute the war. The Mallas didn’t know from where the Gorkhas had got them .
      The British government had supplied the weapons to the Gorkhas, but this fact has been kept hidden in Nepal history’s book. The secret treaty which was done is still preserved in London in the archives of East Indian Company.
      The pact was signed by Captain Ceane and the Gorkhas. The British government agreed to supply the weapons and advice, and in return, the Gorkhas had to destroy the old trade routes between India and China.
      The Moguls of India had a flourishing business relationship with the Mallas of Nepal, and this trade accounted for 30 percent of the wealth of the Moguls. The British wanted to get their hands on the riches.
      According to the accord, Prithvi Narayan Shah received 800 muskets along with 21 British advisors. And in 1766, armed with British weapons and intelligence, the Gorkhas attacked Kirtipur. The people of Kirtipur could not resist the superior arms, and two third of them were killed.
      The cruel Gorkhas cut off the noses of the survivors. Till today , this place is known as the “ village of the noseless”. The Mallas then realized that the situation had become precarious.
      Jaya Prakash Malla, king of Kathmandu , was an intelligent ruler. He wrote a very touching letter to the East India Company appealing for assistance against the Gorkhas. The East India Company subsequently sent 15 very strong men under the command of a captain named Kinlock to help the Mallas. This captain was quite fond of drinking alcohol.
      When the British arrived at the hills leading to the Kathmandu valley, they faked being defeated by the Gorkhas. The Gorkhas pretented to hit them and they acted as if they were wounded. The British wanted the Mallas to think that the Gorkhas were too powerful to fight with.
      Jaya Prakash Malla then looked to religion for support. A prophet told the king that the future of Nepal depended on the Kumari. And so in 1768, the festival of Indra Jatra was celebrated with extra fervor. The Nepalese drank lots of rice beer during the festivities, especially on September 13 on the day of the chariot festival. They did not notice that the Gorkhas had entered the city until they had surrounded the Kumari’s chariot. Pandemonium broke out. Jaya Prakash Malla jumped down from the royal chariot with his two wives and escaped to Lalitpur. Prithvi Narayan Shah stepped in front of the bewildered crowd and shouted, I’m now your king. Carry on with your drinking.” Prithvi Narayan Shah was at that time 46 years old. Many Newars drank rice beer because they were terror-stricken. The Gorkhas put their swords to the necks of the Newars who refused to accept the new king, so they had no choice but to obey.
      In the following winter, the Gorkhas also conquered Lalitpur without any opposition. The Mallas then gathered at the palace in Bhaktapur. The palace was well defended. And following the advice of his British advisors, Prithvi Narayan Shah imposed a blockade. After three years, Bhaktapur’s food stock ran out. And one night, illegitimate children of the Mallas opened the gates to the city. The valley’s three kings were arrested in their bedrooms. Jaya Prakash Malla committed suicide. To show his big-heartedness, Prithvi allowed Jaya Prakash to be brought to Pashupatinath for the final rites.
      Bhaktapur’s king Ranjit Malla, who had given shelter to Prithvi Narayan, was not killed; but his eyes were put out and sent to the Hindu holy city of Banaras. Tej Narasingh of Patan did not want to exchange any words with Prithvi Narayan.
      Tej Narasingh was imprisoned in a vault and walled up. A small hole was left open to pass food to him. And for ten days, a bowl of rice was put near the hole. When they saw that Tej Narasingh had not touched the food, the hole was bricked up.
      Prithvi Narayan Shah did everything according to Captain Ceane’s suggestions. He said to Prithvi, “ The people of Nepal are very hard working and intelligent. That is why they are very dangerous. We need to strike terror into their hearts in order to control them. Don’t let them come to power even after many centuries. We need to obliterate from their minds the idea of rising up to seize power. This can only be achieve through harsh laws and violence.
      Accordingly, Newars were not allowed to read, write or repair their houses. If they broke the law, they faced the dealth penalty. In 1770, two and half thousand Newars were killed. The second generation was thoroughly intimidated, and gave up. The third generation started to forget. The tax records of 1767 show that 176 different kinds of fruits and vegetables were grown in the valley.
      After Prithvi Narayan Shah took control of the valley, the old cities began to stagnate even though so much money was pouring into the country. The only changes in the cityscape that occurred were the result of earthquakes.
      The British naturally benefited greatly from their cruel plan. In 1776, the Mogul Empire became bankrupt and was forced to become a colony of Britain. The whole of central Asia suffered after Prithvi Narayan Shah took over Nepal and closed the old trade routes.
      Tibet’s economy too was negatively affected. The depressed economy forced monasteries to become financially self-reliant. This was how feudalism emerged as a shadow on the gentle face of the Buddha. There was a negative effect even in China.
      The British were also not very happy with the Gorkhas. The Gorkhas had tasted the blood, and did not give up violence. In this way, they conquered all the hill states. The Gorkha turned the country into a “forbidden land”. As long as the country remained closed up, the British were not disturbed. But in 1789, the Gorkhas became crazy and went to war with China and England. Britain’s General Ochterlony said, “ We have to keep the Gorkhas busy so that other things besides conquest come to their minds.”
      Lord Hastings wrote in his diary in 1817, “ To bring peace in Nepal, the Gorkhas must be kept busy and far from their country.”
      This policy led to the recruitment of Gorkha soldiers into British army. The Nepal government took one-third of the money sent home by the Gorkhas. It was an important source of income for the government of Nepal.
      After the Gorkhas began leaving Nepal, there was peace on the frontier as well as within the country. But there was no peace in the king’s palace. The Shahs fought among themselves. They didn’t care about the country or the people. They remained engrossed in their own interests .
      Then came the Kot Parwa, and the Jung Bahadur Rana took over power from the Shah king.
      Source: Matina journal published from UK

  3. Jwajalapa!

    I think there are still many many Histories kept Hidden in Nepal and I hope one day these all the hidden histories come out in the light.
    Because of so much suppression by Khas rulers, many Newah people are still not concious what is happening to them and are sleeping in a Deep Sleep.

    Many Newah people have lost their language which was their voice. They are forced to learn Khas language and indirectly they are becoming Khas people.

    I wish and hope they will wake up from their Deep Sleep and save themselves from the suppression to save their identity. From the “Past” comes “Present” and from the Present comes “Future”. That is why all the tences are very important and we have Right to know our past history.

    I don’t see as a “United Nepal” but I see as “Invaded Nepal” using cunning tricks to our ancestors. If it was united Nepal , then why I was not allowed to learn my own native language “Nepal Bhasa” at school, in my own native land?

    Subhay!

  4. Niranjan Malakar

    I want to buy this book. But I do not find anywhere. Can any one help me ? English version ! Thanks.

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